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金刚石砂轮的各种修整方法的原理特点

2020-09-21 621

  金(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石砂轮(lun)具有很好的(de)(de)(de)磨(mo)(mo)削(xue)功能,在(zai)工(gong)业陶瓷、硬(ying)质合金(jin)(jin)、光学玻(bo)璃、金(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石刀具及(ji)宝石等难加工(gong)资料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)磨(mo)(mo)削(xue)上(shang)有着十分广泛的(de)(de)(de)使用。但金(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石砂轮(lun)存在(zai)硬(ying)度(du),修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)难度(du)相当大(da),且在(zai)修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)进(jin)程(cheng)中(zhong)简单产生阻(zu)塞等问题,严重影响磨(mo)(mo)削(xue)外表的(de)(de)(de)质量和(he)修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)效率,约束了金(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石砂轮(lun)的(de)(de)(de)使用,本文对金(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石砂轮(lun)的(de)(de)(de)各种(zhong)修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)办法进(jin)行比较和(he)研(yan)究,剖析了各种(zhong)修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)办法的(de)(de)(de)修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)原理(li)、特(te)色及(ji)运用场合。

  1 磨(mo)削修整法

  1.1 磨削修(xiu)整法的原理

  修整(zheng)时(shi)是用(yong)(yong)一(yi)般(ban)磨料砂(sha)轮与金(jin)(jin)刚石(shi)砂(sha)轮对磨,金(jin)(jin)刚石(shi)砂(sha)轮做旋转运动(dong),而(er)一(yi)般(ban)磨料砂(sha)轮在(zai)(zai)做旋转运动(dong)的(de)(de)一(yi)起(qi)还(hai)做进给运动(dong),金(jin)(jin)刚石(shi)砂(sha)轮外(wai)表(biao)的(de)(de)磨粒在(zai)(zai)摩(mo)擦力(li)的(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)下(xia)开始渐(jian)(jian)渐(jian)(jian)旋转,旋转的(de)(de)一(yi)起(qi)对金(jin)(jin)属结(jie)合剂产生必定的(de)(de)挤压(ya)力(li),至(zhi)使粘(zhan)结(jie)剂呈(cheng)现裂纹,跟着摩(mo)擦力(li)的(de)(de)接连(lian)作用(yong)(yong),造(zao)成结(jie)合剂的(de)(de)裂纹进一(yi)步扩(kuo)大,终粘(zhan)结(jie)剂破(po)碎,使磨钝(dun)的(de)(de)金(jin)(jin)刚石(shi)颗粒从(cong)砂(sha)轮外(wai)表(biao)脱落(luo),尖利的(de)(de)金(jin)(jin)刚石(shi)颗粒显露(lu)出来然(ran)后(hou)到达修整(zheng)的(de)(de)意图(tu)。

  1.2 磨(mo)削修整法的(de)特色(se)

  磨削(xue)修(xiu)整(zheng)法的首要长处是(shi):结构简略、操作便利、修(xiu)整(zheng)时(shi)间短、磨削(xue)速度安稳、磨削(xue)本钱较低,但修(xiu)整(zheng)进程存在冲击力,修(xiu)整(zheng)效率低、修(xiu)整(zheng)精度差且(qie)磨粒脱落较多(duo)、质量不(bu)易操控。多(duo)用于修(xiu)整(zheng)陶(tao)瓷(ci)和树脂(zhi)粘(zhan)结剂金(jin)刚(gang)石砂轮。

  2 软(ruan)弹性修整法

  2.1 软弹性(xing)修整(zheng)法的原理(li)

  软弹(dan)性修(xiu)整(zheng)法(fa)在修(xiu)整(zheng)时砂(sha)带套在砂(sha)带轮(lun)上,修(xiu)整(zheng)时金刚石(shi)砂(sha)轮(lun)高(gao)速旋转,卷带轮(lun)缓慢滚(gun)动(dong),砂(sha)带在带轮(lun)上渐(jian)渐(jian)移(yi)动(dong),使(shi)用砂(sha)带与(yu)砂(sha)轮(lun)的(de)接(jie)触(chu)力地去除金刚石(shi)砂(sha)轮(lun)外表磨粒(li)间的(de)结(jie)合剂,然(ran)后到达(da)修(xiu)整(zheng)的(de)意图。

  2.2 软弹性修整法的长处

  与其它修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)办法(fa)(fa)比较,软弹性(xing)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)法(fa)(fa)更适用于(yu)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)金(jin)(jin)属结合剂金(jin)(jin)刚石微(wei)粉(fen)砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun),由(you)于(yu)金(jin)(jin)属结合剂金(jin)(jin)刚石微(wei)粉(fen)砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun)既有金(jin)(jin)属的(de)(de)塑(su)性(xing),又有很高的(de)(de)硬度,所以(yi)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)难度相(xiang)当大,首要表(biao)(biao)现在(zai):修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)东西外(wai)表(biao)(biao)磨(mo)(mo)粒(li)(li)很快被磨(mo)(mo)损,其次是(shi)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)工的(de)(de)容屑空间简单阻(zu)塞使修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)无法(fa)(fa)持续。而用软弹性(xing)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)法(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)东西--砂(sha)(sha)带(dai)总是(shi)以(yi)新的(de)(de)尖利磨(mo)(mo)粒(li)(li)被修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun)接触,能构成杰出的(de)(de)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)环境,地去(qu)除金(jin)(jin)刚石砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun)外(wai)表(biao)(biao)磨(mo)(mo)粒(li)(li)间的(de)(de)结合剂,且(qie)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)时磨(mo)(mo)削力较小(xiao),磨(mo)(mo)削外(wai)表(biao)(biao)质(zhi)量高。

  3 电火花修整法

  3.1 电火(huo)花修整原理

  该办法在修(xiu)整(zheng)金(jin)(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石(shi)(shi)(shi)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)进程中,砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)高速旋转,金(jin)(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石(shi)(shi)(shi)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)接(jie)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源的正,东西(xi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)接(jie)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源的负(fu),在金(jin)(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石(shi)(shi)(shi)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)和东西(xi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)之间(jian)喷(pen)入磨削冷(leng)却液,电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)加在东西(xi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)与砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)之间(jian),火花放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)便在砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)金(jin)(jin)(jin)属(shu)粘结剂(ji)与修(xiu)整(zheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)间(jian)产(chan)生(sheng),瞬(shun)时放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的高温使金(jin)(jin)(jin)属(shu)粘结剂(ji)产(chan)生(sheng)气化,砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)外表的金(jin)(jin)(jin)属(shu)结合剂(ji)被(bei)去(qu)除(chu),金(jin)(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石(shi)(shi)(shi)磨粒被(bei)充分(fen)地露出出来完成对砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)的修(xiu)整(zheng)。

  3.2 电(dian)火花修整的特色

  可(ke)完(wan)成(cheng)在线修整(zheng),易于保证砂(sha)轮的(de)磨削(xue)(xue)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du),修整(zheng)后的(de)砂(sha)轮磨削(xue)(xue)力(li)小,精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)高、且和修锐可(ke)一起完(wan)结,但速(su)度(du)(du)(du)较慢(man)且电火花放电修整(zheng)金(jin)刚(gang)石砂(sha)轮会由(you)于放电温度(du)(du)(du)过高使磨粒的(de)功能产生(sheng)改变,操控砂(sha)轮外表(biao)的(de)温度(du)(du)(du)是电火花修整(zheng)金(jin)刚(gang)石砂(sha)轮的(de)关(guan)键。

  4 激(ji)光修整(zheng)法

  4.1 激光修整法的原理(li)

  激(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)修整法是(shi)使(shi)用光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)学系统把激(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)束聚集成很小的(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)斑(ban)作(zuo)用在(zai)砂(sha)轮(lun)外(wai)(wai)表(biao)(biao),除(chu)(chu)少部(bu)分(fen)激(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)被(bei)反射(she)外(wai)(wai),绝大部(bu)分(fen)激(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)被(bei)金(jin)属(shu)粘(zhan)结(jie)(jie)剂吸(xi)收(shou),温度(du)敏捷(jie)升高(gao),导致被(bei)激(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)束照(zhao)耀(yao)的(de)(de)区域(yu),金(jin)属(shu)粘(zhan)结(jie)(jie)剂气化而被(bei)去(qu)除(chu)(chu),结(jie)(jie)合剂资(zi)料(liao)的(de)(de)去(qu)除(chu)(chu)一般经过:照(zhao)耀(yao)、吸(xi)收(shou)、升温、气化几(ji)个进程。在(zai)激(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)修理(li)砂(sha)轮(lun)时,合理(li)操(cao)控激(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)功率及(ji)密度(du),能够一起(qi)去(qu)除(chu)(chu)砂(sha)轮(lun)外(wai)(wai)表(biao)(biao)的(de)(de)金(jin)刚石磨(mo)粒和结(jie)(jie)合剂资(zi)料(liao),到达砂(sha)轮(lun)的(de)(de)意(yi)图,通过调整激(ji)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)加(jia)工参数,还能够挑选性地去(qu)除(chu)(chu)砂(sha)轮(lun)外(wai)(wai)表(biao)(biao)的(de)(de)结(jie)(jie)合剂资(zi)料(liao),使(shi)金(jin)刚石磨(mo)粒具有(you)必定的(de)(de)突起(qi)高(gao)度(du),到达砂(sha)轮(lun)修锐的(de)(de)意(yi)图。

金刚石砂轮

  4.2 激(ji)光修整法的长处

  激光修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)法(fa)是一种非(fei)接触修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)办(ban)法(fa),修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)时既没(mei)(mei)械作(zuo)用(yong)力、没(mei)(mei)有修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)东(dong)西的(de)(de)损耗,激光作(zuo)用(yong)时间短,作(zuo)用(yong)面积小(xiao),对金刚(gang)石磨粒和粘(zhan)结剂(ji)都没(mei)(mei)有损害(hai),确保了粒的(de)(de)磨削功能,且修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)效率(lv)高,缺(que)陷是修(xiu)整(zheng)(zheng)工艺较杂乱(luan)、本钱较高。

  5 电(dian)解修(xiu)整法

  5.1 电解修整法的(de)原理

  电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)修(xiu)整(zheng)法(fa)首要(yao)用(yong)(yong)于金(jin)(jin)(jin)属(shu)(shu)粘结(jie)(jie)剂(ji)(ji)(ji)金(jin)(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石(shi)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun),电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)修(xiu)整(zheng)时,金(jin)(jin)(jin)属(shu)(shu)结(jie)(jie)合剂(ji)(ji)(ji)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)与(yu)直(zhi)流电(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)正相(xiang)接做为(wei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)阳,东(dong)西电(dian)(dian)(dian)与(yu)直(zhi)流电(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)负(fu)相(xiang)接做为(wei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)阴,在阳和阴之间喷入具有电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)的(de)磨削液(ye)做为(wei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液(ye),使(shi)(shi)金(jin)(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石(shi)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液(ye)、东(dong)西电(dian)(dian)(dian)和电(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)构成电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)回路,修(xiu)整(zheng)时,让电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液(ye)充溢(yi)阴与(yu)阳之间的(de)间隙,电(dian)(dian)(dian)流从(cong)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)经电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液(ye)流向修(xiu)整(zheng)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun),金(jin)(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石(shi)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)外表的(de)金(jin)(jin)(jin)属(shu)(shu)结(jie)(jie)合剂(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)金(jin)(jin)(jin)属(shu)(shu)成份在电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液(ye)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)下,溶于电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液(ye)中(zhong),并与(yu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液(ye)中(zhong)的(de)氢(qing)氧根离子化合,生(sheng)成细小固体被活动的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)液(ye)带走(zou),大大降低了金(jin)(jin)(jin)刚(gang)石(shi)砂轮(lun)(lun)(lun)表层粘结(jie)(jie)强度(du),这个时候再(zai)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)机(ji)械(xie)修(xiu)整(zheng)法(fa),修(xiu)整(zheng)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)就能(neng)(neng)够得(de)到了大的(de)改进(jin)。所以电(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)(jie)(jie)修(xiu)整(zheng)是以电(dian)(dian)(dian)化学作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)为(wei)主,机(ji)械(xie)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)为(wei)辅进(jin)行(xing)的(de)一种复合修(xiu)整(zheng)办(ban)法(fa)。

  5.2 电(dian)解修整(zheng)法的(de)特(te)色

  电解(jie)修(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)法能够(gou)便(bian)利(li)的完成(cheng)金(jin)属(shu)结合剂金(jin)刚石(shi)砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun)在线电解(jie)修(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng),且与修(xiu)(xiu)锐可(ke)一起完结,简(jian)单(dan)操控金(jin)刚石(shi)砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun)外表(biao)的切削状况,用电解(jie)法修(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)金(jin)刚石(shi)砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun)的长处(chu)是(shi)(shi)修(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)时间短、磨削热(re)小(xiao),避免了金(jin)刚石(shi)砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun)因修(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)温(wen)度过(guo)高磨粒碳化导致砂(sha)(sha)轮(lun)寿命下降(jiang),缺陷(xian)是(shi)(shi)电解(jie)修(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)法精度不高,修(xiu)(xiu)整(zheng)本钱较大(da),工(gong)艺较杂乱。

  文章源自:金刚石砂(sha)轮 http://cartagena-apartamento.com


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